Our Chicken Keeping FAQs
This chicken keeping FAQ page is full of little snippets of useful chicken information. It will keep growing so keep checking back.
Use the site search facility next to the menu button to hunt down your chosen chicken keeping FAQ topic
A broody chicken is one that has decided that she wants to hatch some chicks of her own.
Chicks require very specific care. They require heat in the early days till they have more complete feather coverage. More info here
A hybrid is a commercial standard chicken, that has a specific “recipe” which the breeders follow to create a “super chicken”. The hybrid breeds often are trademarked and have names such as Hyline Brown, Lohmann Brown, Warren, Babcock, Bovans and several others. A hybrid mated to a hybrid does not produce another hybrid of the same type. Most hybrids are based on Leghorn, Rhode Island Red (or white) or Sussex.
Crossbreeds are usually happy accidents or experimental crossings of a male and a female chicken. Crossbreeds do not breed true, much like hybrids don’t. It takes many generations for the genes to fix and eventually they may breed true and perhaps become a breed in their own right. Hedgerow Henporium crosses are this kind of pairings. Our resident cockerels get to mate with our laying flock. Our laying flock are all good layers so the resultant crosses usually follow suit. They are also very varied in colour too which makes them interesting additions to a mixed flock.
A pure breed, breeds true. They often have a Poultry Club of Great Britain “standard” and a dedicated club. The standard dictates the breed characteristics from the head down to the toes. This is where the beauty pageant comes in. The shows test whether a particular entrant conforms to the exact “standard” of the breed in question. Most of the pure breeds have dedicated bands of breeders who preserve the breed in its correct form for generations to come. As there is a heavy bias on the visual aspect of the breed for showing purposes, several breeds are now a shadow of their former selves in terms of egg laying ability. A pure breed, bred to the same pure breed, will produce another copy of the pure breed. This means it breeds true
Technically not a breed at all. Landrace means that the characteristics of a certain bird from a geographical area over many generations of chance interbreeding will eventually conform to a style. A Swedish Flower Hen is one such example. They are so rare in their native country of Sweden, that any breeders in other countries have agreed to preserve the breed exactly the way it is, and most of all that no trait selection should take place. There should be no breeding to capitalise on certain characteristics over others or selecting for colour etc. The random nature of the breed is the reason it is so beautiful.
Do I have to vaccinate my chickens
A: If you imagine that some of the massive breeders of commercial types of chickens raise them in a warehouse or huge barn conditions. There may be thousands of birds in this situation. If one bird gets sick then lots of birds get sick. It spreads like wildfire to the point where losses can be catastrophic economically. These types of breeders cannot afford for any birds to fall ill. Vaccination in this situation is imperative. It’s not for the end users benefit entirely. It is economic suicide for the breeder if they don’t. Vaccinations have to be given at strict intervals, rather like human baby immunisation schedules. Boosters also need to be given at the prescribed intervals. Vaccinations against many illnesses are available for the most part in vials of 1000 doses. Several different vaccines have to be given in order to protect the business of the breeder.
A small flock has less risk of illness as they have less stresses. Vaccinations do not guarantee healthy birds as not all vaccinations are done correctly. Vaccinated birds can shed the strain of the illness for several months afterwards and put non-vaccinated birds at greater risk of exposure to undesirable pathogens.
Good animal husbandry is the key to healthy birds. Most vets won’t even entertain vaccinating a chicken. For a small breeder to buy in the raw materials to vaccinate to the same degree as the commercial hybrids would cost in the region of £700 which for small flocks is just not needed or affordable.
A pullet is a female chicken in her first year. Female chickens older than a year are called hens.
A young male chicken, less than a year old is called a cockerel, over a year old he is known as a cock bird. Americans tend to call their male chickens by the name of rooster or roo for short.
In short the answer is no. Unless you are a totally vegan household, no food which has passed through a domestic or commercial kitchen is allowed to be given to chickens. Chickens are classed as livestock and come under this DEFRA/Animal Health rules, even if they are pets.
The usual reason that people give to flout the rules are these. During and after WW2 chickens were given all sorts of waste food. Food never used to be adulterated with chemicals and artificial additives as it is today. Meat was also in short supply because it was heavily rationed during this time. Food was simply not in the same league as it is now. Keeping livestock (chickens are classed as livestock) has certain responsibilities that have to be followed.
The reason behind a seemingly ridiculous rule is simple. Pathogens from one species should not find its way into the food of another species. If it came about that an illness that occurred in chickens could by way of mutation, cross the species barrier, then there is a far greater chance of that pathogen being able to jump species to the human population. Especially as much of what a chicken eats finds its way into the egg that we eat. Feeding of any produce that contains the remains of different animals, however accidental that exposure is, is not allowed. It is to protect the human population from pathogens that our immune systems do not know how to fight. Bird flu (Avian Influenza) is one such risk, vCJD is another.
Fresh live mealworms that have been bred in this country – yes. Dried mealworms are a definite no-no. DEFRA won’t allow it. This helpful article from the British Hen Welfare Trust explains it fully.
People just love their chickens and treat them as members of the family. Chickens love this. However, it is important to remember that chickens have specific nutritional requirements in order to safely deliver an egg. Unless you are well versed in nutrition and specifically bird nutrition then don’t be tempted to offer treats of human food to the girls. It’s strictly not allowed by DEFRA/Animal Health anyway.
The digestive system of a bird is completely different to a human. They cannot tolerate a great deal of what we eat. Much of it is happily eaten, but it can cause lots of hidden internal damage. Please remember that chickens are birds, and not little people with feathers on. If you really want to offer treats, then a handful of scratch corn in the afternoon on a cold day to warm them up from the inside, is more useful. Hemp seeds are full of protein and are also a useful occasional treat
Daylight length dictates how active the chicken’s hormones are. As the nights draw in towards Winter and the days get shorter, the chicken’s egg-laying hormones start to shut down.
In response to this, a chicken that is in her 2nd calendar year will start to moult. During a moult, a chicken will lose all her feathers in sequence until she has replaced them all. This is a very untidy time for her. She will look very bedraggled and become covered in pin or blood feathers. These are newly emerging quills that are nourishing the new feathers growing inside. They will look blue but the quills are actually full of blood. See our post here for more information.
A feather is produced by a chicken in the following manner. Firstly a shaft or pin feather emerges from the skin. It fills with blood which nourishes the newly forming feather vanes. The shaft grows longer to accommodate the length of the new feather. When the feather is ready to emerge it starts to appear out of the end of the shaft and the blood supply shrinks away and seals off. This outer keratin layer dries and it flakes or is preened away so that the feather can unfurl. Flaked keratin is what appears to be dandruff.
The short answer is no. Chickens are very well insulated from the cold with their feather duvets. A handful of mixed corn before roosting will heat them up from inside overnight if they need any extra oomph. If it is below freezing, then breeds with large facial floppiness (combs and wattles) will benefit from a rub with vaseline to stop frostbite in extremes of cold weather. It is very important to maintain proper ventilation in the coop. This prevents dust, condensation and ammonia build up. Water quality is important to keep on top of. See our post on the subject
- To make sure that the new additions are not bringing anything unhealthy into your birds.
- Ensuring that the new birds have a chance to take on the new and therefore foreign bugs on board from your environment without the stress of a trial-by-chicken.
- To ensure that your chickens can take on the new incoming bugs on board without the stress of a trial-by-chicken.
Chickens will feel stress as a result of changes in the environment, change in the number of chickens, and the need to sort out a new pecking order. Stress can lower the immune response in all birds to virtually zero.
Quarantine duration should be for three weeks and be in the vicinity of each other. They can use the quarantine time to “chat” through any barriers and get used to seeing each other around. Any squabbles after quarantine will tend to be short-lived. They can finally mingle and roost together if they all still appear healthy.
You may think that the pecking order is a fable, but it is a very real thing. Chickens live by strict rules of etiquette in their flocks so woe betide any chicken that oversteps her boundaries. Each flock has a head chicken and a number two chicken and a number three chicken right down to the last bird who is at the bottom of the pecking order. Eating or drinking or dust bathing in the favourite spot before the higher ranking hens will therefore be very severely chastised by higher ranking members. It is interesting to note that a cockerel is not the head chicken. His function is to protect the flock, mate, and find food for his ladies.
Do Chickens suffer from pests?
Chickens can be affected by a number of pests.
- Red Mite – see our article on this topic
- Chicken Body Lice
- Northern Fowl Mite
- Depluming Mite
- Worms of different kinds
Good animal husbandry is the key to recognise and keep on top of any potential issues caused by these pests.
Layers mash is exactly the same as layers pellets. Layers mash is pelleted to form pellets. Layers mash is fed dry. It can be useful to keep chickens busier during the day as it takes longer for them to fill up. Mash is dusty and can be messier to feed. You can add water to it to make is more like a sort of porridge if you really want to. Not particularly needed but can helpful in fussy eaters. Adding in some poultry spice makes it more enticing if needs be whilst adding some good minerals.
Despite what it is called, mixed poultry corn is actually a mix of wheat and crushed maize. It is junk food for chickens. It makes them fat and has little nutritional benefit. It is also very heating so should not be fed in hot weather. Quite useful in cold weather at bedtime to heat them while they sleep. Scratch corn or simply scratch is another name. Chickens fed solely on corn will have severe nutritional deficiency and will eventually not lay. Corn on the cob (sweetcorn niblets) is good both for entertainment and has a different nutritional profile. It does not heat up the way wheat does.
You may read loads on social media about feeding additional protein during the annual moult. Feeding cat food or dog food or tinned fish is not helpful. It will not only hurt your pocket but will hurt your chicken internally. Invisible liver damage due to additional fats is a long term health condition due to birds being fed a poor diet rich in fats. Fatty liver disease in birds is becoming all too common due to well meaning but misguided chicken keepers. Read more on the moult here